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How to Start a Pig Farming Business in Ghana

Out of all the livestock farming business options, pig farming is one of the most profitable livestock farming businesses in Ghana. 

If you want to start a commercial pig farm in Ghana you will need to have land that is big enough for all the required stock and equipment and there has to be enough space to have separate stalls for your sows (female pigs), boars (Male pigs) and piglets. Swine fever is a big threat to pigs so proper hygiene should not be optional and you should immunize your pigs. 

Most of your budget should be used for the food for your pigs. Pigs tend to eat a lot. Getting pig feed in Ghana should be easy and you can make your pig feed by preparing a mixture of wheat bran, fish meal and maize meal, all these ingredients are available in Ghana. However, getting commercial feed is advisable for nutritive reasons even though it is pricey but if you are looking to start a small scale pig farming business in Ghana getting paid feed should be cheaper. “Piggery” is another way of saying pig farming. 

Is pig farming in Ghana Profitable?

Piggery is a very profitable business to start in Ghana. The amount of money that you will get from selling your pigs can be more than twice the amount you have put into rearing your pigs and starting your pig farming business. However, this depends on the number of pigs you can rear. 

Piggery is a very profitable business but it requires patience because the gestation period for pigs is 4 months and for the piglets, it takes them 6 months to mature. 

The reason why pig farming is so profitable is that there is a high demand for pork and other pig products in Ghana. Another reason why pig farming is so profitable is that pigs can reproduce in large numbers, so they grow faster and with this, you can make your money easily and in a short period. 

A sow (female pig) can give birth to a maximum of 13 to 16 piglets at a time. A pig has a gestation period of only 4 months. In a year, you can get up to 12 to 32 piglets from one sow if a sow gets pregnant twice.

A lot of people see piggery as dirty work but it is a very profitable business and it has a lot of benefits. Some of the benefits of pig farming are:

  1. It is a way of creating employment opportunities. 
  2. It allows you to have financial freedom. 
  3. It is not very difficult to start.
  4. You could make extra income through selling other pig by-products. 

Pig Farms in Ghana

Pig production is usually cheap and getting pig feed is not always very costly. Maintaining pig farms should not be expensive. A pig farm is one of the least expensive farms to maintain compared to other types of animal farms but at the same time it is very profitable and it brings in a very steady stream of funds. 

Pig Farming Business Plan

Every business requires a business plan. For pig farming, you will need a well-detailed business plan that will help them prepare for all the challenges and expenses. 

Pig farming is one of the best forms of farming that you can look forward to starting. Your pig farming business plan should include:

  • Industry Overview

These are all the interesting facts and statistics about the pig farming industry. 

  • Executive summary 

This should be a summary of your pig farming business plan, this should also include some information about your piggery business. 

  • Products and services

This should be a detailed list of all the things you wish to produce and sell in your pig farming business. 

  • Mission and Vision 
  • Piggery Business structure 
  • Job roles and responsibilities 

This should be a list of all the job opportunities and the responsibilities that come with each of the job roles. 

  • S.W.O.T. Analysis 

Before starting any business you need to do a S.W.O.T. analysis, this means that you need to know the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the business. 

  • Market Analysis

This is an analysis of the market trends in the pig farming business. 

  • Target Market 
  • Sales and Marketing strategies 

This should include all the ways you are planning on generating more income.

  • Sales Forecast 

You should be able to gather information for this part after doing a market survey and a feasibility study. 

  • Publicity and Advertising strategy 

You should have a plan to advertise your pig farming business either using traditional or modern methods of advertising. 

  • Pricing strategy
  • Startup budget
  • Sustainability and Expansion strategy 

After experiencing the pig farming business for some time you should have a plan to expand your pig farming business and a plan to be able to sustain it.

How to start a Pig Farming business

To start a pig farming business in Ghana is not always an easy task but if you have the right information for your piggery business, your pig farming business will thrive. 

Before going into piggery you should do a market survey and feasibility analysis to know if there is a high demand for pork and other pig products in the area that you want to build your pig farming business. 

  • Writing a business plan

Before going into any business you will need a business plan. Your pig farming business plan should have:

  1. Industry overview.
  2. Executive summary.
  3. Products and services.
  4. Mission and vision statement.
  5. Job roles and responsibilities.
  6. SWOT analysis.
  7. Market analysis.
  8. Target market.
  9. Sales and marketing strategy. 
  10. Sales forecast.
  11. Business structure.
  12. Publicity and advertising strategy.
  13. Pricing strategy.
  14. Start-up budget. 
  15. Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. 
  • Getting a good location

When starting a pig farming business you will need a good location. When choosing your piggery business location, you should pick a location in a rural area. Sometimes pigs can give off an unpleasant odour into the area, that is why you should have your pig farming business located in a non-residential area. The location of your pig farming business should have access to clean water, good transport and it should be close to a market. 

  • Getting capital 

There is no fixed amount for the starting capital for a pig farming business, the capital depends on how big or small you want to start.

  • Setting up suitable pig pens 

After getting land, you will need to build a pig pen for your pigs. The pig pen should have proper air ventilation and also proper shade during hot weather. There has to be a good drainage system to avoid bad smells. The pig pen should be cleaned regularly to avoid contamination. The pig pen should have a good water system. You can add a water pool which has to be cleaned regularly because pigs like to swim in their drinking water sometimes. In your pig pen, there should be a separate section for the piglets to keep them away from their mothers so that they could mature faster.

  • Choose suitable breeds 

There are different pig breeds but some of them can get you more profits than the other pig breeds. You have to pick a pig breed that can earn you maximum profits. Some profitable pig breeds in Ghana are:

  • Landrace,
  • Yorkshires,
  • Mulefoot,
  • Hereford,
  • Hampshire pigs, etc.

The cost of one piglet is usually GHC80 and the cost of a fully grown pig is around GHC400.

  • Getting proper pig feed 

Pigs can practically eat anything but the best feed for pigs is grain and meat. Pig feed should be purchased in bulk and the majority of their feed should have protein. Pigs must feed on vitamins, heavy protein meals and rich supplements. Giving your pigs clean water is very important. 

  • Getting professional assistance 

Pigs can get sick so you have to make sure that they stay healthy so you will need the help of a veterinarian. 

  • Start breeding your pigs

The gestation period for pigs is 4 months and it takes 6 months for piglets to mature. If you want to start a commercial piggery, it is advisable to start on a small scale and learn more about the pig farming business. 

  • Start Selling 

For new pig farmers, it is advisable to sell the pigs alive. It is easy for farmers to sell all their pigs because of the high demand for pork and other pig products. 

The pig farming business is quite cheap to start but it can be very stressful. The pig farming business in Ghana is very profitable but it is advisable to start on a small scale for beginners and with time and experience they can decide to expand. 

Jakub Borowiec
Jakub Borowiec
Financial markets enthusiast. I studied management at the University of Economics in Wroclaw.
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